# Why is computer security important?
- Valuable data or infrastructure is held on internet-connected devices
- Hacking can be used to exploit vulnerabilities in computer systems and extract data, hold infrastructure ransom or cause other disruptions.
# Network Managers
- Responsible for network security
- Various methods are used to prevent network threats and used to keep networks secure, however there are always vulnerabilities that can be exploited
# Threats to networks
- Malware is a type of program that can replicate itself and cause a computer to malfunction.
- It can cause the computer to stop, misbehave or become unresponsive.
- May delete or corrupt files
# Examples of malware
- Causes damage
- Replicates without user intervention
- Type of virus
- User is tricked to install malware
- The Trojan pretends to be something else
- Copied to memory when the host file is executed. Once the virus resides in the memory, any file copied to the memory can be infected.
- Viruses may reside in macro files:
- Usually attached to a word processing or spreadsheet file
- It infects the template when the data file is opened
- These viruses tend to be less harmful
- Worms trick the user to open an infected file or email attachment
- Worms self-replicate without user action and spread to other users by sending emails to them from the infected computer’s address book.
- Worms affect the speed of the computer, server and and network by occupying bandwidth
# Virus vs Worms
- Both self replicate
- Viruses only replicate when the host file is opened or executed
- Alternatively worms do not require any user action to self-replicate
- Trick the user into opening or executing an infected file by camouflaging in the form of a program.
- Trojans infect the computer and give access to the trojan creator via a backdoor
- Backdoors allow outsiders to bypass security checks by opening an access channel.
- Some actions of a trojan creators are stealing personal information and sending spam email via infected network resources
- Groups of computers that function like this are called botnets
- Unlike viruses and worms, trojans do not self-replicate
# Malware: Preventative Measures
- Malware can be prevented by installing antivirus software and avoiding software from unknown sources. Must be updated regularly to avoid becoming vulnerable to new attacks.
- Backing up a system in an off-site mode will help to retrieve the corrupted data is attacked by malware.
- Updating the operating system and browser also helps in fixing security vulnerabilities. Browsers identify harmful sites.
A user might receive emails to gain personal banking details which could be misused
The emails look as though they are sent by their bank
The user clicks on a link and enters their personal information into a fake banking website, giving the attacker their credentials
Not always easily identifiable, some are much better than others
It is always important to check the URL and email address before interacting
Many email providers filter out a lot of phishing emails using automatic filters
# Denial of Service (DoS)
- Denial of service attacks prevent a user from accessing part of a network such as an Internet server.
- A user can be prevented from accessing websites, emails and banking applications.
- Aims to overwhelm the server, does not really work against modern hardware.
# Data interception and theft
- Data packets travelling across a network can be intercepted and read by a third-party
- This can be prevented by ensuring the communications are encrypted with a secure algorithm
- Packet sniffing software such as Wireshark can be used to examine packets moving across a network that you are currently connected to.
- Some protocols such as VoIP can be reconstructed through this method
- Sometimes it is legitimate to use this software to analyse network trends and detect intrusion attempts. This is done by organisations.
- In wireless LAN, this is done by using special Wi-Fi adapters
- It is easy for an attacker to intrude a wireless signal as this can be done from a range of 300m
- It is important to encrypt data using WPA (Wi-Fi protected access) that uses a key of at least 128 bits.
- Keys are often regenerated for each packet to avoid intrusion.
# Brute force attack
- An attacker tries many passwords with the hope that he will guess it correctly.
- The attacker tries all the possible passwords systematically until the correct one is found.
- Short passwords can be easily determined
# Preventative measures
- A brute force attack is delayed by using a CAPTCHA
- This requires a user to answer a different question between successive attempts
- Users are advised to use long, alphanumeric passwords as a measure to improve security.
# SQL injection
- SQL injection is a type of attack in which an attacker executes a malicious SQL statement in a web server’s database
- Hence, an unauthenticated user may gain access to sensitive information
- An example would be typing
DROP *into a search box (destructive) or something like
SELECT *to return the information
- Pharming is a type of attack in which malicious code is installed on the user’s computer or the web server that they access without their knowledge
- This would then redirect the user to a fake website
# Preventative measures
- A user should ensure that a proper SSL connection is active as this will highlight an issue
- Ensure relevant anti-spyware software is running
- Check that the URL matches what is expected
# Unpatched software
- Software applications are constantly upgraded by developers to improve security
- Users receive patches that update the software
- Unpatched software may expose you to unnecessary risk
# Shoulder Surfing
- Shoulder surfing is an attack where the password or pin numbers of a user are obtained by the attacker just by observing them.
- The attacker creates a situation to trick the user into providing sensitive information or perform actions that are not usually permitted.
# Buffer overflow attack
- Malware uses a buffer overflow attack to write values to memory locations that are larger than it can handle
- As a result, neighbouring locations are overwritten
- In this way, an attacker gains access to locations they do not have
- Now the processor thinks that there are new instructions to execute, and will perform actions as defined by attackers.
# Preventing Network Threats
“One single vulnerability is all an attacker needs. - Window Snyder”
# Penetration Testing
- Penetration testing is a testing method to analyse a computer system or network for possible vulnerabilities that an attacker may take advantage of.
- Penetration testing can be automated by software and involves the following steps:
- Identifying a vulnerability in the system
- Setting up an attack to check the vulnerability
- Carrying out the attack
- Testing the ability of the system to recover any lost or corrupted data after the attack
Hardware and/or software placed between the user’s computer and an external network, such as the internet, to filter data in and out of the computer.
Firewalls are installed on servers, computers, or routers depending upon the network requirements
A hardware firewall is a computer that consists of two network interface cards, one connected to the internal network and the other connected to the external network.
Checks whether the incoming and outgoing data meet the set of requirements imposed by the network administrator.
Preventing malware and hackers from accessing the internal network.
Prevent Denial of Service attacks.
A user is notified when the software in a system tries to access an external source.
When a firewall is software based, it is usually integrated into the operating system.
# Packet filtering or static filtering
- A firewall examines the source and destination IP address in a packet
- Only the data packets with permitted IP addresses are allowed
- Packets may be filtered based on the protocol being used o the port number it is trying to access
- If data fails to meet these requirements a warning is issued or the data is dropped and not allowed to pass through
# Stateful inspection or dynamic filtering
- The process of filtering data packets by examining the payload is called stateful inspection or packet filtering
- Based on the recent conversations, packets will be filtered
- A data packet is rejected if it does not form a part of a registered communication.
# Limitations of firewalls
- The use of modems by an internal computer to bypass a firewall cannot be prevented
- Does not take care of password strength and carelessness of an internal user.
- Firewalls can also be disabled in stand-alone computers according to a user’s choice, the computer is not safe
- In an organisation, it is important for a network manager to control the firewall.
# Proxy server
A proxy server installed between a user’s computer and the web server acts as a firewall.
Access to certain websites can be blocked
Response time for a web browser’s request can be reduced by using a cache
During the first visit to a website, its home page is stored in a proxy server cache
During the next visit, certain features of the website are loaded from this cache, speeding up access
A proxy server hides the IP address of a user, enhancing security
- Authentication is used to provide access to trusted parties. The security is further strengthened using encryption.
- To login to systems each user is provided with sets of usernames and passwords
- The various sets of usernames and passwords are stored in a security file. If the user provides the correct set of usernames and passwords they are granted access. If they do not match, their access is refused.
- Some systems may ask the user to enter only certain characters of the password to shield from potential keyloggers.
# Biometric Authentication
- Biometrics refers to the authentication techniques that rely on measurable physical characteristics.
- Some examples of such characteristics are fingerprint scans, retina scans, and face and voice recognition.
# Security protocols
SSL and TLS are two protocols that ensure communication between the user and the webserver is encrypted.
Browsers typically display a padlock when this kind of connection is active.
TLS is the newest protocol
- Encoding a message in such a way that only allows authorised users to decipher it.
- When an unauthorised user receives an encrypted message, they cannot decipher it.
- Public/Private key encryption is typically used here.
# Symmetric vs Asymmetric Ciphers
- Symmetric ciphers use the same method in different directions to encrypt/decrypt
- Asymmetric ciphers use clock arithmetic to perform a one way function.
# Private keys
- Only kept by the intended recipient
- Used to decrypt the message
- Never transmitted
# Public keys
- Available to all users
# Encryption using keys
- A key making algorithm is responsible for generating public and private keys of the receiver.
- The public key can be found in a directory.
- Sender encrypts the message using a public key in this directory.
- Receiver receives this data and decrypts it using the private key.
# Digital signatures
- Certificates run the same hashing algorithm against packets to assure that a packet has not been altered in transit
- A hash can be produced by the sender and then encrypted with a private key before being transmitted by the sender.
- If the receiver decrypts the packet and calculates a different hash, they know that something is wrong.
- A certificate authority (CA) such as Let’s Encrypt will issue a digital certificate
# MAC Address Filtering
- The router compares the MAC address of the device requesting a connection with a list of approved devices.
- The list of approved devices is managed by a network administrator
- MAC address filtering is not completely secure
- MAC addresses can be filtered
- A hacker could intercept packets and find the MAC address of an approved device and then imitate it.